To characterize genetic diversity in the sunflower and to quantify contributions from wild relatives, we sequenced 287 cultivated lines, 17 Native American landraces and 189 wild accessions representing 11 compatible wild species.

As described in Hübner et al. (2019), cultivar sequences failing to map to the sunflower reference were assembled de novo for each genotype to determine the gene repertoire, pan-, of the cultivated sunflower. Assembled genes were then compared to the wild species to estimate origins.